Hub vs Switch vs Router: Understanding the Difference

Although a router, hub, and switch all help direct network traffic, the devices send packets in different ways. Here in this article we will learn about the differences of hub vs switch vs router.

When network devices, computers, or other networks are needed to be connected, hubs, routers, and switches are the bridges to join them. All three kinds of devices can perform the same function, and technicians may use the terms interchangeably. This will make people confuse whether they're different from one another or the same thing. This post will explore the significance of the hub, switch, router, and what they use for.

Hub vs Switch vs Router: Comparison Table




Works in Half Duplex mode.

Works in Full Duplex mode.

Works in Full Duplex mode.

Sends data in form of bits.

Sends data in form of frames.

Sends data in form of packets.

Works in physical layer of ODI model.

Works Network/Data link later of OSI model.

Works in Network layer of OSI model.

Types of Hub

1. Passive hub.

2. Active hub.

3. Intelligent hub.

Types of Switch
1. Unmanaged switches.

​2. Managed switches.

​3. LAN switches.

​4. PoE switches.

Type of Router
1. Core router.

2. Edge router.
3. Wireless router.

4. Broadband router.

Hub used to connect devices to the same network.

The Switch used to connect devices to the network.

The Router used to connect two networks.

Broadcast device.

Multicast device.

Routing Device.

Does not store MAC address of nodes in the network.

Stores IP address and MAC address of nodes in the network.

Stores MAC address and IP address of nodes in the network.

What is Hub in networking?

A hub is a popular connection point for devices in a network. Hubs connect segments of a LAN. It comprises ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets. So every time a packet arrives at one port, it's copied to the other ports.

A hub is to send out a piece of information from one port to other ports. For illustration, if there are three computers of A1, A2, A3, the message sent by a hub for computer A1 will also come to the other computers. But only computer A1 will respond, and the response will also go out to every different port on the hub. Therefore, all the computers can hold the message and computers themselves need to decide whether to allow the message.

Types of Hub in networking 

1. Active hub

Active hubs or multiport repeaters expand the incoming electrical signals that contain data packets. They follow the same principles and optimize network media distances. They may be configured to analyze them although hubs don't prioritize information packets. If a signal is too weak for rebroadcasting, resynchronization, and retiming methods applied by busy network hubs.

2. Passive hub

Passive hubs or concentrators don't amplify or reform incoming signals before rebroadcasting them to the community. They don't improve the performance of local area networks (LANs) and might restrict maximum media distances. Generally, hubs connected to other devices in a star configuration.

3. Intelligence hub

Intelligent hubs operate like active hubs and include remote management abilities. They also give flexible data rates to network devices.

How a Hub works?

A hub can be useful for temporarily replace a broken network switch or to expand a network. However, hubs should only use if performance isn't a significant factor on the network.

Hubs are not same as routers and switches in that are transferred irrespective of which device is currently using. The reason is that a hub, unlike switch or a router, does not know which device requested the information. The system as a whole can experience performance degradation.

Although hubs have functionality, nearly all mainstream Ethernet network equipment used today employs network switches because of their performance benefits.

What is Router in networking?

A router is a small computer that can be programmed to handle and route the network traffic. It usually connects at least two networks, such as two WANs, two LANs or a LAN and its ISP network. Routers each other by protocols.

Data packets together with networks. It's connected to two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP's network. Routers locate at gateways, the places. Routers use headers and forwarding tables to discover the best path for forwarding the packets. And they use protocols to interact with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts.

Types of Router in networking

1. Broadband Routers

Broadband routers can do different sorts of things. Broadband routers can be used to connect to the Internet or to connect computers.

If you connect to the Internet through telephone and using Voice over IP technologies (VOIP), then you require a broadband router. These are frequently a special kind of modem (ADSL) that will have both telephone jacks and Ethernet.

2. Wireless Routers

Wireless routers create a signal in your home or office. Therefore, it can be connected by any PC within range of Wireless routers and use your Internet.

To secure your Wireless routers, you will need to come to fasten it using a password or get your IP address. You'll log into your router using the user ID and passwords will input with a router.

3. Other Types of Routers

  • Edge Routers - This type of router situates at the edge of the ISP network, that is usually configured to an outer protocol like BGP (Border gateway protocol) to another BGP of other ISP or large organization.
  • Subscriber Edge Routers - This kind of router belongs to an end-user (enterprise) organization. It's configured to transmit external BGP to its provider's AS(s)
  • Inter-provider Border Routers - This kind of router is for Interconnecting ISPs. This is a BGP speaking router that supports BGP sessions with other BGP speaking routers in other providers' ASes.
  • Core Routers - A router that resides inside back or the center of the LAN network instead of at its periphery. On occasion, a core router provides a stepdown backbone, interconnecting the supply routers from several constructions of a campus Large Enterprise Location (WAN) or (LAN). They manage to optimize for bandwidth.
  • Wired and Wireless Routers - Office and home networking are becoming popular by day by the use of IP wired and wireless router. A wired and wireless router can maintain routing and configuration data in their routing table. They also provide the service of clarifying traffic of incoming and outgoing packets based on IP addresses.

How a Router works?

Routers connect a modem — like a cable, fiber, or DSL modem — to other devices to enable communication among those devices and the internet. Most maximum routers, also wireless routers, commonly feature several network ports to connect numerous devices to the internet concurrently.

Typically, a router connects via a network cable to the modem through the internet or WAN port and then physically. Again, with a network cable, to the network interface card in whatever jazzed network devices you may have. A wireless router and devices that support the standard can connect.

The IP address assigned to the internet or WAN link is a public IP address. The IP addresses are the default gateway for the devices on the system.

Wireless routers, and wired routers with many connections, including behaving as easy network switches enabling the devices to communicate with one another. By way of instance, many computers can be configured to share files and printers.

What is Switch in networking?

A switch can handle the data and knows the specific addresses to send the message. It can determine which computer is the message intended for and send the message directly to the right computer. The efficiency of switch has been dramatically improved, thus providing a faster network speed.

Types of Switch in networking

1. Unmanaged switches

These are the switches that mostly use in small companies and home networks as they plug and immediately begin doing their job, and these switches don't have to be configured or watched. These require only cable connections. It allows devices on a network, including a computer to computer or computer to the printer at one location.

2. LAN switches

These are also called Ethernet switches or data switches and are utilized to reduce network congestion or bottleneck by distributing a package of information only to its intended receiver. These are used to connect points.

3. Managed switches

These sorts of switches have many features like the highest levels of safety, precision control, and complete management of the system. These may be customized to improve a network's functionality and employee in organizations containing a network. Their scalability makes them an ideal selection, although these would be the option. They achieve by fixing a simple network management protocol (SNMP).

Managed switch are two types -

  • Smart switches - These switches provide basic management features with the ability to produce some levels of safety but have a more straightforward management interface compared to the other managed switches. Thus, they're usually called switches. These use in LANs which support allocations and data transfer. It may accept configuration of VLANs (Virtual LAN).
  • Enterprise managed switches - They have features like the ability to fix, alter, copy, and display different network settings together with a web interface SNMP agent and command-line interface. These are known as managed switches and are more costly than the switches since they have features which may be enhanced.

4. PoE switches

PoE switches utilize in PoE technology that stands for power over Ethernet, which is a technology that integrates power and data on the same cable enabling power devices to receive data in parallel to power. By simplifying the procedure, these switches provide flexibility.

How a Switch works?

A switch works at the (layer 2) data link layer. LANs that use switches to join fragments call switched LANs or, in the case of Ethernet networks, switched Ethernet LANs. In systems, a switch is a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments.

To spell out how does a switch work, allow me to make an introduction into the subject by describing the background of TCP/IP stack layers, framework, and the purpose of switch. This will enable you to understand the operation of a change, which is the agenda here.

To allow communication between many computer devices, the devices are needed an intermediate network. As we all know from the does operate post that is Router, routers, like street signs and crossroads direct packets?

They look in the IP packet header searching for the destination IP address (Source and destination IP contained in the packet header) and based on the local routing table, route the packet to the next hop to the destination. So, routers run at Layer 3 (IP Packet is network layer -- Layer 3 communication structure).